Dear colleagues and BRAGECRIM/PIPC project partners,
We at TUHH got the honor to host the next annual BRAGECRIM/PIPC meeting. We will try to arrange a suitable meeting regardless of the actual weird times caused by the CORONA virus. As nobody knows how the situation will change in the coming weeks and months, we will try to keep the arrangements as flexible as possible - except the time window. Therefore, please block in your appointment calendar the period
September 28-30, 2020
The meeting itself will take two days, but at present, we need some adjustability within this three-day block due to internal and external constraints. At present, the program is outlined in a way that the start will be on Monday morning (with a previous welcome reception on Sunday evening) and the end on Tuesday afternoon to enable participants to leave appropriately to attend other appointments starting on Wednesday. However, it might happen that we still have to shift the meeting start to Monday afternoon or Tuesday morning – for example due to air traffic limitations or the timing of an excursion to AIRBUS industries which we try to include into the program as AIRBUS is very active in optimizing connected manufacturing (see details below).
We hope that all of you can attend personally – but in case there will be some restrictions concerning traveling, we will use a mix of personal presence and video transmission. At this very moment, I hope that all least all Germans will be at the meeting in person together with a fair fraction of the Brazilian partners. The ones who cannot make it to Hamburg personally can alternatively participate online. In the worst case, we might move to a full online meeting – but please keep your fingers crossed that this meeting will be a “real” one.
But as mentioned above, in any case, the meeting will take place in the time window of Sept 28-Sept 30, so please block these days!
We have prepared already a webpage for the coming meeting which you can find at:
There, you will find a tentative program (still designed for Sept 28-29, please remind yourself as mentioned above that the program schedule is preliminary) and some additional information regarding location, accommodation, etc. In the near future, we will add a button for registration. By the way: the final deadline for registration will be August 30.
As mentioned above, this time, we plan to integrate an excursion to the AIRBUS production side at Hamburg Finkenwerder (about 15 km from TUHH). There, the line for the production of the single-aisle types (319-321) is already a serial production, and – previously to CORONA – AIRBUS was working hard to optimize the manufacturing to a total level of more than 60 aircrafts/month for the 319-321 family. The AIRBUS Vice President for Architecture and Manufacturing, Dr. Eckart Frankenberger, agreed to show us this line together with a previous presentation about AIRBUS and their way of thinking smart production.
In addition, there will be the option for a second excursion on Wednesday afternoon to the LUFTHANSA TECHNIK side at Fuhlsbüttel which will be kindly arranged by the Materials Science and Technology section of the German Society of Engineers (in German: “AK Werkstofftechnik des VDI Hamburg”). Here, we can visit in particular the turbine repair department as well as their activities in 3D-printing. Unfortunately, the number of attendees for this excursion will be limited to about 25 persons.
We will keep you updated about details and changes via email as soon as possible.
All the best from Hamburg
Rolf Janßen & Maksym Dosta
The "Workshop On Smart Connected Manufacturing" took place in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil on 8th and 9th of October organized by Prof. Klaus Schützer and in connection with the "24th International Seminar on High Technology" that proceeded on October, 10th under the title "Digitization of Production and Digitized Production". In addition to the reports of the individual BRAGECRIM projects the workshop included the launch and presentation of new projects that were granted within the scope of the novel german-brazilian research initiative PIPC (Programa de Iniciativa de Pesquisa Colaborativa), which supports projects in the field of Industry 4.0 and advanced digitalization in production. Additionally, industry talks on the second day of the workshop illustratively demonstrated the necessity of continuing the conductance of research in the field of Smart Connected Manufacturing.
On the first day, Prof. Klaus Schützer welcomed the 43 participants at the Centro Cultural Martha Watts, formerly the first school for girls in Brazil and today a museum and conference center, for the internal workshop. In the BRAGECRIM session results and project achievements of five BRAGECRIM projects were presented. Moreover, the new granted PIPC projects had the opportunity to present their ideas and vision. In the first phase four new collaborative projects in the field of Industry 4.0 and advanced digitalization were accepted. These were namely MetaMaintain (A meta-learning approach to select appropriate prognostic methods for the predictive maintenance of digital manufacturing systems), OWIND (Optical wireless systems with MIMO architecture in an industrial environment), Integrated Process Simulation of Powder Metallurgical Shaping and Sintering Applied to the Optimization of Porcelain tile manufacturing and Manufacturing system models for Industry 4.0 based on highly heterogeneous and unstructured data sets. These projects build the foundation for future cooperation and exchange of scientific results between Germany and Brazil. For this reason, they were presented in a dedicated PIPC session in the afternoon of the first workshop day.
During the second day of the workshop at Centro do Engenho, an old factory building formerly utilized for the production of sugar cane, the presentations of the achievements of the remaining BRAGECRIM projects were accompanied by industry talks from Sandvik do Brasil S.A., Mercedes Benz do Brasil Ltda, Volkswagen Argentina S.A. and Siemens Ltda.
Dear colleagues and BRAGECRIM partners,
this year the results of our BRAGECRIM projects will be presented within the workshop on Smart Connected Manufacturing, which will take place in Piracicaba on October 8th and 9th. The preliminary program can be downloaded here. More information on the workshop can be found on the website of the workshop. Registration is open and can be done until september 24th here.Furthermore, the 24th Seminar on High Technology "Digitization of Production and Digitized Production" will take place on October 10th in Piracicaba, too. Detailed information can be found on the website. To register for the seminar, please, use this link.
The Brazilian-German Collaborative Research Initiative on Smart Connected Manufacturing (BRAGECRIM/PIPC) associates more than 30 Brazilian and German universities, research institutes and industrial partners around a research network on the strategic topic of manufacturing technology. The main goal of the cooperation is the sustainable strengthening of the industrial sector in both countries through basic and applied research and exchange of knowledge and researchers.
The fast growing competition originated from countries with low-cost work forces is pushing enterprises worldwide under a considerable innovation pressure. This fact is also compelling industries to improve the efficiency of their production processes, e.g. by increasing the automation level or by a better management of quality, innovation and information. A global way of thinking is required for the product development and the production planning, taking into account the complete production chain: from energy provision to raw material exploration, product development, machining, distribution, until to final use, repair and recycling. Therefore, manufacturing technology is playing even more an essential role for a sustainable development of many countries.
Brazil and Germany have collected an extended list of successful cooperation initiatives in business, science, technology and education. Many German companies have production plants in Brazil and many Brazilian products are part of the daily life in Germany. The German influence is perceived positively in the Brazilian industry and universities, as many engineers, researchers and professors have accomplished their studies in Germany. Through these traditional and in part personal relationships, several partnerships have been created in the last years between Brazilian and German universities, especially in the area of manufacturing technology.
However, there are some deficits that obstruct an efficient cooperation between both countries in the view of research and education. Up to the creation of the BRAGECRIM/PIPC network, many of the cooperation initiatives were impelled only by isolated initiatives. Middle and long-term objectives of such initiatives, which could make a better usage of each country's potentials and also overcome the current technological deficits, were still not precisely defined. A more efficient and balanced bilateral cooperation could be achieved due to the establishment of adequate research framework programs.
Considering the strategic interests from Brazil and Germany in manufacturing technologies, the long-term goal within this collaborative research program was defined to be:
To enforce the competitiveness of both countries in the global market:
To promote this sustainable development, collaborative research projects have to be created bringing together most of the technologies involved within the product life cycle. These research projects are coordinated by an excellent research group in both countries, which connect to other research groups in each country. Thus, knowledge, technology and cooperation experience will be spread out into both countries, helping the development of emerging universities and industrial regions. In order to synchronize the research networks and to integrate the different technologies in a holistic concept, the research group coordinators of each project take part in a global network to analyse the whole production chain and product life cycle.
Project ideas that are proposed to BRAGECRIM/PIPC have to develop knowledge and technological solutions to provide innovation, which improves the efficiency and competitiveness in different areas of the whole product life cycle (from the customer to the customer).
The proposed collaborative research initiative combines strategic technological research activities with an international educational program and a direct support to the industry. These projects focus on very innovative strategic research topics, which deal with the demands and deficits in both countries. In middle terms, the developed technologies will be transferred to industry. Such a collaborative research network promotes the knowledge exchange between both countries in a research field (e.g. quality management, precision manufacturing etc.), involving some specific research projects with high importance for both countries. These projects are executed including international doctoral, master and bachelor studies (student exchange). A central coordination manages the whole network and an open knowledge forum, stimulating the technology and knowledge transfer to the society. By organising open international (once a year) and national (twice a year) workshops as well as by student and scientist exchange, this program provides a multiplication effect to spread out the developed high-end technologies and knowledge.
Partnership overview BRA-GER
Universities and research institutes of both countries, which are international recognized leaders in the field of manufacturing technology and have a large cooperation experience, have contributed to prepare this new cooperation framework. These institutions are widely distributed over Germany and Brazil.
Up to now, the following partners participate in the initiative (the Initiative is open for the participation of new partners):
This international research program will provide both countries with high-tech manufacturing technologies and knowledge, covering different strategic demands and reinforcing existent competencies. The benefits of such cooperation concerning the scientific, technological and educational improvements for both countries are clearly shown in the current 16 approved project ideas. These advanced production technologies will impulse the progress of innovation and competition of local industries. Therefore, it implies in a sustainable development, not only for the industry of both countries, but in general for the whole society with economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts. Some of the expected results are pointed out:
In order to stimulate and support a more efficient cooperation between German and Brazilian research groups in the area of manufacturing technology, a cooperative framework in strategic research between the both countries was prepared. The RWTH Aachen University, represented by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Tilo Pfeifer, and the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, represented by Prof. Dr. Carlos Eduardo Pereira, were coordinating this cooperation program together with the funding agencies DFG (Germany) and CAPES (Brazil) until 2019. At the 11th BRAGECRIM Annual Meeting in Piracicaba in October 2019, the BRAGECRIM program was officially closed and the follow-up program with the working title PIPC (Programa de Iniciativa de Pesquisa Colaborativa) was launched. As coordinators of the new program, the meeting participants have elected Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag from the University of Bremen and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Enzo Frazzon from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC).
The BRAGECRIM initiative has been started by the presidents of DFG and FINEP, which have shown the common interest to improve the Brazilian-German cooperation in the field of manufacturing technology at the end of 2005. Since then, important milestones have been met in this important international cooperation network:
The number of projects has increased in the 3rd phase of BRAGECRIM, as depicted in the graph below.
The 2nd and 3rd phase of BRAGECRIM (2011-2017) have continued to produce many positive and successful results, which are compiled below in the graph.
The BRAGECRIM/PIPC network is organised in Brazil and in Germany by a coordination comittee:
The committee is represented by Prof. Michael Freitag from BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik at the University of Bremen (Germany) and Prof. Enzo M. Frazzon, Professor at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil).
University of Bremen
BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Departamento de Engenharia de Produção e Sistemas
Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Produção
A description is coming soon.
An important task of maintenance is to ensure the technical availability of machines and plants as cost efficient as possible. Predictive maintenance approaches pursue this objective by predicting potential failures of technical components and avoiding them by taking appropriate measures in advance. The forecast models used for this purpose are usually developed for a specific application and cannot be generalized.
The objective of the project is to develop a meta-learning system that allows an automated selection of the best suitable forecasting method. The results of the forecasts will eventually be used for an integrated production and maintenance planning. In addition, a monitoring and adaptation procedure is to be implemented to trigger a dynamic adaptation of the system to new system states. In this way, fore-casting methods can be selected dynamically and optimal maintenance decisions can be derived based on the current state of a production system.
The first step is to define relevant use cases for the predictive maintenance of production systems. On this basis, a framework will be developed that includes a set of forecasting methods, a methodology for integrated production and maintenance planning, and an ontology for translating information from different data sources. On this basis, the metalearning system will be designed. For this purpose, the framework will be combined with a machine learning technique for selecting and configuring forecast methods, with a simulation model and a service-oriented architecture for data acquisition and data transfer. This will be followed by the addition of a monitoring and adjustment procedure. Finally, the performance of the system is evaluated with regard to forecast errors and key production logistics figures within simulations of real industrial applications.
The planning and control of production processes has a significant influence on the performance of a job shop manufacturing system. The production is subject to dynamic influences (e.g. faults caused by machine failures or rush orders), which have to be considered for the production planning and control. Common methods are therefore normally divided into modules for calculating plans and modules for operational control. In general, optimisation only takes place at the strategic planning level, while detailed planning is carried out on the basis of simple, static dispatching rules. This allows the generation of schedules in short computation times, but generally no optimal schedules based on the current state of the production system are generated.
Approach of the 1st phase
This Brazilian-German cooperation project aims at developing a simulation-based optimisation method for the scheduling and control of dynamic job shop manufacturing systems. The traditional approach of simulation-based optimisation is suitable for solving complex, stochastic scheduling problems. Within the project, this approach will be extended to additionally incorporate the dynamics of job shops, so that scheduling decisions and the configuration of the shop floor control can be optimized with respect to the current system state.
Results of the 1st phase
In the first phase of the project, a simulation-based optimisation method for controlling dynamic job shop production has been developed. The classical approach of simulation-based optimisation was extended in such a way that the dynamics of job shop manufacturing are taken into account and the optimisation of planning decisions and control rules is always based on the current system state. In order to gain this system state from the physical production process, an automated method to exchange data between a manufacturing execution system and the simulation model within the optimisation approach was developed. The developed method was evaluated considering the job shop production of a Brazilian producer of mechanical parts.
Objectives of the 2nd phase
In the second project phase, a method for the integrated control of inventory, production and maintenance processes has to be developed in order to map the current status of a production system in more detail. This means that maintenance orders can be scheduled for the machines in addition to the existing method and the inventory stocks can be taken into account for planning and control.
Approach of the 2nd phase
Initially, methods for planning maintenance jobs (Germany) and methods for inventory control (Brazil) using up-to-date system data will be developed in parallel. Subsequently, both approaches will be combined to an integrated inventory, production and maintenance control method, which will then be evaluated in a real scenario using data from the industry partner Rudolph Usinados as well as by scenarios from the literature.
The forging sector for the automotive industry nowadays seeks for more resource efficient processes. In order to reduce energy consumption with a possibility of significant cost reduction, this project aims at developing innovative process chains for new generation bainitic steels with continuous direct cooling after forging (figure a), replacing the traditional hardening and tempering processes.
Two different commercial available new generation bainitic steels with low and high Silicon content and additionally a steel with higher carbon content which will be developed by the Spray Forming process will be employed. Extensive physical and FEM-simulation and instrumented forging experimentation will allow the determination of the processing windows for these steels. In process and in situ techniques (figure b) will be used to gain information about the phase transformation kinetics by means of a special developed eddy-current sensor in specific experiments. Different thermo-mechanical processes will be developed, including the forging at different temperatures in the hot and warm range, controlled cooling with different rates and cold calibration. The forged samples will be characterized concerning the final microstructure and mechanical properties. As mechanical parts also need to accomplish with good surface properties concerning improved wear and fatigue resistance, different surface treatments after forging will be applied and evaluated, as induction hardening, low temperature plasma nitriding and deep rolling. With well-defined microstructures, excellent properties are expected to be obtained with similar mechanical properties to those obtained by the traditional quenching and tempering or even higher strengths and superior ductility.
Emulsions play an important role in product development and formulation, as well as encapsulation of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Conventional methods for emulsion production and/or separation present some drawbacks, such as the use of high shear stress, high energy demanding and polydisperse droplet size distribution. In this sense, membrane technology emerges as an alternative method to overcome these issues and to produce fine and stable emulsions. Most of the research is focused on polymeric membranes. However, membrane performance still needs developments towards scaling up, mainly regarding fouling behavior.
Ceramic membranes arise as effective options for oily wastewater treatment or emulsification, since they exhibit superior resistance to high temperature, high concentration of oil content, foulants, and strong cleaning agents. On the other hand, commercial available ceramic filtration membranes do often have a broad pore size distribution, which lead to inhomogeneous droplet sizes during emulsification. Therefore, new manufacturing techniques still need to be developed for producing membranes that show narrow pore size distribution in the range of 0,1-1 µm and reduced fouling, and consequently increasing membrane lifetime and economic feasibility.
The novelty of this project is the manufacturing of polymer derived ceramic membranes at the University of Bremen, whose properties can be altered on the nanoscale (composition of the precursor) and by the processing technique (shaping, pyrolysis temperature). Two different precursors, polysiloxanes and a polysilazane, will be studied as precursor, mixed with filler particles and template particles and casted or pressed to membranes. Beside the preparation of a defined macropore structure, the surface characteristic will be altered between hydrophilic and hydrophobic by varying materials compositions and the use of different pyrolysis temperatures. At the University of Santa Catarina the manufacturing of oxidic ceramic membranes (ZrO2, Al2O3) with uniform pore size distribution by tape casting will be included for comparison reason. The surface characteristic of these membranes will be adjusted by grafting silanes of different polarity. The influence of the pore size distribution and the surface characteristic on the emulsification as well as oil recovery from aqueous wastewater and a first scale-up of membrane geometries will be investigated.
Years ago in metal cutting industry the revolutionary substitution of monolithic cutting tools by tool-holders combined with small and easy to exchange indexable cutting inserts opened completely new possibilities for process and material efficiency, accuracy, and tool design. In closed-die forging the tooling costs make up a significant part of the total component costs. As not only the abrasive and adhesive wear but also the temperature cycle, which results in thermal fatigue, is only present in the thin surface layer of the tool, the application of an inexpensive and easy to exchange sheet metal cover, which well fits the engraving of the die, could result in a benefit, although extra effort is needed.
First works show in numerical simulations of closed-die forging a reduction of the thermo shock on the surface of the die and in total a reduction of the maximal surface temperature of about 140 K, when using a sheet metal cover. Furthermore a reduction of the abrasive wear could be estimated. In addition, the simulation showed, that particularly at tight inner radii, which can be increased by the thickness of the sheet when the die cover is used, a reduction of the notch effect can be seen, which leads to doubling of the expected number of forging cycles. First experiments showed general feasibility, although folding was observed, because of a too weak sheet material.
Thus, in the first funding period of this research project the basic mechanisms and possible applications of this concept should be investigated. Basic geometries will be studied by numerical modelling and experiments.
Materials shall be selected and characterized concerning their application for the concept in numerical simulations. For that purpose, especially the heat transfer coefficients and friction coefficients between workpiece, sheet metal cover and die have to be evaluated. In numerical simulation studies those die engraving geometries can be identified, which allow also for loosely placed die cover sheets only little tangential displacement. Concerning to these simulations, forging experiments with promising as well as critical simple die geometries will be performed. It will be analyzed weather the die covers will remain inside the engraving and if the forming is adequately possible. Furthermore it should be deducted, which suitable and easy to produce sheet preform geometries possibly can be produced by the die engraving itself.
In an eventual continuation period, the transfer to more complex and industrially relevant geometries and an analysis of the wear reduction will be studied also in experiment.
The reduction of weight of products using lightweight carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) is an enabler for the industry to save energy and face the international climate objectives and increasing energy costs. CFRP are characterized by a high specific stiffness and strength, which make them ideal for lightweight applications in e.g. aviation industry (airplanes, helicopters), wind turbines (rotor blades), automotive industry and even consumer goods industry (e.g. bicycles, tennis rackets etc.). In fact, new electric vehicles have been introduced recently considering a significant amount of CFRP in the support structure, thus reducing weight and enhancing driving dynamics. The demand of CFRP is expected to grow in the coming years, since the use of CFRP expands from small batch production to mass production.
The economic feasibility of CFRP products must be assured throughout the whole product life cycle. Therefore, the long term operational reliability and economic repair processes must be assured. The established concepts from aircraft and aerospace industry base upon manual processes and in general demand a replacement of damaged parts. A mass production of CFRP products requires economically feasible and efficient repair processes. Therefore, non-destructive, reliable, efficient and automated measurement technology is required to fit the material, component and repair workshop specific requirements. The development of portable and non-destructive testing methods, which reliably and holistically detect defects (CT-like), is inevitable.
Thermography is well suited for the non-destructive detection of defects in CFRP. Thermography systems are portable, cover large areas and are time efficient. The thermography is based on 2D images. These images contain an overlay of the different layers of the sample (depth information). However, the absolute position and size of the defect on the component and its depth information are not directly accessible. The objective of this project is to design, develop and setup a system to reliably detect impact damages with their respective properties (size, shape, position and depth) in CFRP components that enables a reliable repair process in the workshop environment. This goal will be achieved by enhancing the thermography to detect those 3D properties of defects in carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Relevant CFRP samples with different impact defects will be studied with thermography and CT. From the CT results, a defect classification will be drawn, considering properties like the depth and geometry of the defects and the severity of the damage. By fusing results from both measuring techniques, an evaluation model will be created. The model will be integrated into a demonstrator and validated. The additional benefits from this project are measurement strategies for thermography and CT to better quantify the CFRP damages. The results will improve the quality assurance of CFRP and will enable reliable repair processes. The model can be extended to other materials and defects.
German and Brazilian manufacturing companies have a long collaboration tradition with strongly linked value creation networks. In order to ensure their competitiveness in an increasing globalization, the horizontal integration of their production chains has to continuously adapt to new innovations. The industrial value creation in Germany is currently shaped by the development towards the fourth stage of industrialization, the so-called Industry 4.0. The disruptive innovations towards an Industry 4.0 are having a substantial influence on the manufacturing industry by establishing an interplay of smart factories, smart products and smart services embedded in an internet of things and services also called industrial internet. In order to enable the advantages of Industry 4.0 for the German-Brazilian value creation networks, the application of the new technologies of Industry 4.0 has to be consistently realized throughout the whole production chains. To achieve this, a knowledge transfer regarding the main principles of Industry 4.0 from Germany to Brazil has to be organized.
The objective of this project is to achieve this knowledge transfer by the development and implementation of Learnstruments for Industry 4.0. Learnstruments are artefacts, which automatically demonstrate their functionality to the learner. They can be used in the classroom or directly at the workplace and aim at increasing the learning and teaching productivity in engineering education. The Learnstruments will enable a knowledge transfer of production principles of Industry 4.0 in the field of vocational, higher and professional education to trainees, students and employees for the work in future manufacturing environments. As first result, this project provides synergy effects for both countries: in Brazil through the access to the latest manufacturing technologies and innovations of Industry 4.0, and in Germany through the efficient and effective horizontal integration of Brazilian factories in the value creation networks. As second result, this project prepares trainees, students and employees in Brazil and Germany for the work in an Industry 4.0 manufacturing environment. This result thus directly contributes to meeting the continuous demand of future engineers and highly skilled employees for the manufacturing sector in Brazil and Germany.
The research project aims at improving the micro-production chain to generate knowledge about related process stages, including potential improvements of productivity and quality. It is intended to deepen the use of simulation methods in process optimization. First, the process planning will be focused on the analysis of significant impact factors in micro-machining and on the reduction of processing times. Secondly, the process and machine setup and the micro-machining itself will be investigated focusing on its improvement by using enhanced monitoring and simulation techniques. Finally, the part control will be improved regarding measurement methodologies to effectively and accurately provide part information. In order to consider all these different aspects and their impact on the micro milling chain, the partners join their forces and bring their specific knowledge and experience from different disciplines for jointly contributing to the improvement of micro milling processes based on their particular expertise.
The knowledge and results gained in the fundamental research activities and through the planned cooperation will considerably improve the competitiveness of the research partners together with the possibilities to spread this knowledge and technology to support micro-manufacturing industries in both countries to introduce novel machining processes. This will help micro-manufacturing and especially the mould making industry to reach superior surface quality, tight machining tolerance, shorter machining time with less wear and tear on their machines and tooling. In summary, this project focuses on the development of knowledge and solutions for innovating critical aspects of micro milling processes, concentrating on the production of moulds for micro-featured products, targeting the improvement of productivity, efficiency and on the advancement of strategies for optimising costs and quality. The envisaged research project faces some important challenges described in the scope and framework of the BRAGECRIM and contributes to the objectives expressed in this research initiative and the interests of Brazil and Germany to improve competitiveness and the level in production technology.
This project is tailored according to the Phase 3 goals of the BRAGECRIM research initiative: The sustainable development of the German-Brazilian production chain through innovative technology. An important step towards a product`s life cycle behaviour is the machining process. This process determines the product's surface and subsurface properties. Especially the latter (residual stresses, microstructure and hardness alterations, cracks, etc.) are relevant for fatigue life of the components. However, under mechanical load the subsurface properties might change. The special focus of this project is the residual stress relaxation due to external loads. This mechanism and the interaction with other surface and subsurface properties are not understood. The detailed characterisation of the mechanism of relaxation depending on the machining process will lead to advanced products. The vision of this project is the specific adjustment of surface and subsurface properties by adapted machining process design to optimize fatigue life of components. The investigation of the occurring mechanisms in a collaborative project will promote the knowledge exchange between Germany and Brazil regarding this important matter for cyclic mechanically loaded components.
The manufacturing sectors of Brazil and Germany are facing the challenges of global distributed value-added networks, requiring manufacturing companies to cater to customer demands by offering a wide variety of product customizations, to shorten the time to market for new products and at the same time reduce manufacturing costs in flexible manufacturing environments. The research initiative Industry 4.0 encounters these challenges through the application of highly adaptive factories with a high integration of information and communication technology, and new business models. Basis for these "smart factories" are distributed cyber-physical systems within products and manufacturing environments.
The vision of the research project SCoPE is to promote individual physical manufacturing components as information carriers. Information-carrying manufacturing components comprise a digital data representation about their intermediate manufacturing states, their manufacturing history, physical properties, customizations, purpose etc., and utilize this digital data representation for communication-controlled production processes. "Smart components" will be able to autonomously navigate through a cyber-physical production system and to control the manufacturing and assembly procedures applied to them. Potential use cases are the traceability of smart components in distributed manufacturing environments based on internet technology for the establishment of component individual manufacturing histories or the utilization of individual component data in smart assembly processes to achieve optimal component pairings in complex products.
To support the innovative approach of smart components within smart production processes and environments, the underlying data structures and processes have to be developed. Hence, the innovative core of the SCoPE project is the structured specification of component data in an integrated component data model to enable the application of smart components.
Project number: BRAGECRIM 022/2012
Satisfactory maintenance is crucial for the operation of complex production systems. Insufficient maintenance - potentially due to missing spare parts - can result in breakdowns of the maintained systems, accompanied by cost effects (downtime costs, costly emergency shipments, etc.), diminishing profits, and a declining customer service perception. Thus, the effective and efficient management of maintenance services and the spare parts supply chain is of major relevance for the operation of complex technical systems. Minimizing downtimes of the maintained system while keeping the supply chain costs within an acceptable range can only be achieved by exact forecasts of system breakdowns. Due to the sporadic character of the demand and the broad range of affected system components, the application of "classical" forecasting methods - e.g. for finished products - does not allow for precise demand predictions and causes low forecast qualities. Therefore, more appropriate methods, including advanced embedded diagnostic/prognostic systems, are required to allow for an efficient planning of respective maintenance activities and spare parts replenishment. Furthermore, supply and distribution of the needed spare parts along the supply chain together with the planning of service personnel are mandatory for effective maintenance.
It is estimated that about 34% of all energy used in industrial countries is wasted to overcome friction. In addition to energy loss, the generated heat negatively affects the performance of the mechanical system. Thus, high friction results in higher wear and more than 30% of the production in industry goes to replace worn out products. There are many activities worldwide to overcome these problems in industry and to develop components which are less susceptible to friction and wear. In a reciprocal manner friction affects also day-life products (e.g. refrigerator compressors) which work under pressure and metal-metal contact is almost unavoidable. Nowadays many innovative techniques are applied to increase the working-life of a component. Some current solutions to compensate the problem of friction are the use of parts with hard coatings or self-lubricating surfaces. Drawbacks in manufacturing of these coatings are still present. The processing of solid lubricant coated parts involve complex and elaborate steps as well as highly expensive equipment and materials.
In order to increase the energetic efficiency of the products the route of Polymer Derived Ceramic (PDC) seems to be a promising technology regarding to the processing of tailored surfaces on metal parts. The PDC technique is based on the transformation of a mostly silicon based polymer (precursor) into an amorphous SiCN ceramic material by a thermal treatment (pyrolysis) at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Due to the polymeric behavior of the precursor different shaping techniques (dipping, spraying, spin-coating) for applying a coating can be used. The unique structure of the polymers are particularly advantageous for a strong adhesion at the metal surfaces. In order to tailor the coating properties like increasing the hardness, influencing the tribological behavior or adjusting the mismatch in thermal expansion between coating and substrate the polymers can be loaded with additional filler materials, e.g. ceramic or metal particles.
The aim of this project is to develop PDC coatings on sintered, pre-sintered and non-sintered parts. The goal is to obtain a metal component with a wear resistant surface by using hard ceramic phases (e.g. Si3N4 or SiC) in combination with a dry self-lubricant feature represented by ceramics with a low coefficient of friction (e.g. hBN). Thermal treatment of the coated samples in highly reactive environments should exert a positive influence on the coating properties. The processing scientists work together interdisciplinary in order to combine various expertise in the field of metal processing and polymer derived ceramics to develop a new coating technology.
Technical applications of nanomaterials have received special attention due to their desirable characteristics in strategical areas such as catalysis, pigments, health, food, treatment of surfaces, among others. In the engineering field, nanomaterials or nanoparticles have fundamental applications in the development of catalysts and sensors, where the specific process functionality and quality is only achieved in nanostructures with high surface area and small particle sizes below approximately 20 nm. For applications of nanostructured materials, the particle formation and production step as well as the formulation of these particles in terms of surface layers and coatings need to be addressed properly to transfer nanostructured materials into industrial products. In this sense, the development of improved manufacturing processes employing nanoparticles is presented as a strategic theme for the scientific and technological development. Nanoparticles with high purity and narrow particle size distributions can be produced efficiently and economically in pyrolysis reactors e.g. in flame sprays. These reactors are the central core of the FSP process ("Flame Spray Pyrolysis") and are obtained by the combustion processes of drops of a liquid fuel (ethanol, iso-octane, aromatic hydrocarbons). These small drops contain a dissolved (metal) precursor produced by an axial spray in contact with an oxidant sonic jet, with consequent formation of the flaming spray. The main flame typically is stabilized by a pilot flame by burning a premixed gaseous hydrocarbon and the nanoparticles are nucleated in the frontal region of the flame after the evaporation and burning of the fuel and the precursor. In the region of the main flame occurs the entrance of external air which ensures the supply of oxidant oxygen required for complete fuel combustion and oxidation of the precursor and subsequent formation of nanoparticles. The FSP process is capable to produce nanoparticles and mixtures of metal oxide particles with sizes in the range varying from 1 to 100 nm, which are based on low cost metallic precursor materials.
The main objectives of the project may be summarized as:
- Derivation of suitable process conditions for manufacturing of tailored nanostructured coatings.
- Development of suitable in-situ diagnostic techniques for process monitoring (process metrology).
- Development of combined integral process models for description and scaling of nanostructured deposition manufacturing.
Future investigations of the project contain the development of new reactor concepts for simultaneous synthesis of metal oxide and carbon black nanoparticles with specific application in Li-ion-battery manufacturing.
Surface structures are used to extend technical components life. Surface structures, also called functional surfaces, provide additional space for cooling lubricant and favour the generation of pressure in the lubrication film at low sliding speeds. As a consequence, friction in technical components is decreased, resulting in reduced wear. The manufacturing of such structures is nowadays generally done applying lithography, etching, laser techniques and high-precision machining. In this collaborative project, conventional grinding using special grinding wheels with defined topographies will be applied to manufacture structured surfaces, which is only marginally researched so far. Grinding will allow a much faster production of structured surfaces in several kinds of material to improve efficiency and sustainability of materials used in technical components. Besides the defined topographies of the tools, it is essential to know and control the kinematics of the process to be able to manufacture deterministic structures. This will be achieved by deriving analytical equations that specify the kinematics of the proposed grinding process. In this collaborative project, two different kinds of special grinding wheels and kinematics will be developed and researched. The German research group will focus on grinding wheels with defined grain patterns for surface grinding, whereas the Brazilian research group will focus on special conditioning of the bond of grinding wheels applying a cylindrical plunge grinding process. By applying surface and cylindrical grinding, all geometries relevant for sliding components will be considered.
Based on the analytical equations specifying the respective kinematics, each research group will develop a simulation tool. The required grinding wheel patterns accordant to desired structures of the Brazilian Group will be simulated using a pattern generation and mapping software, previously developed at the Brazilian Institute and to be enhanced during the proposed project. The German Research group will develop a simulation tool that is able to identify and visualize needed grain patterns for desired surface structures and vice versa. The manufactured structured surfaces from both groups will be optically mapped and their tribological performance will be evaluated. By comparing the possibilities and limitations of the respective approaches, a comprehensive knowledge of the capabilities of grinding structured surfaces will be achieved. The unrestricted exchange of the research results will lead to results impossible to achieve in individual projects and will strengthen the relationship of this binational research group.
In this project, multicomponent Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) shall be processed by the relatively new technique of selective laser melting, which is expected to result in components with advanced mechanical properties. The alloy powder required for this manufacturing process is synthesised by spray forming. The goals of this project are to study the influence of two rapid solidification methods (spray forming and SLM) on the microstructure and the shape memory effect of two Cu-based SMAs, viz. Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn and Cu-11.35Al-3.2Ni-3Mn-0.5Zr. The mechanical properties shall be analysed with focus on the interrelation between the microstructure (e.g. phase formation, grain sizes, second phase precipitates etc.) and the details of the martensitic transformation (i.e. shape recovery, superelasticity, strength etc.). Moreover, it shall be evaluated whether or not SLM is a competitive costefficient alternative for manufacturing products like stents or actuators/sensors of shape memory alloys with advanced mechanical properties. Considering that high cooling rates can be reached by this method, the influence of rapid solidification on phase formation and grain size, mechanical properties and shape memory effect of Cu-based shape memory alloys will be studied.
Advanced Ceramics have been applied on many areas of engineering and related concerns of microgrinding are aspects of advanced manufacturing that have been growing together. Lenses, mirrors, mechanical parts, medical products, cutting tools, mechanical systems, electronics, armor, chemical, MEMS parts, and a wide variety of sensors are examples for commercial purposes. All these applications need to be manufactured with precise standards using micro grinding techniques. Most of these applications require a crack-free surface. Usually, hard and brittle materials such as glass, silicon, zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, PZT ceramics and germanium are commonly used for making these products. The advances on micro grinding of brittle materials have led to the discovery of a ductile regime in which material removal is performed by plastic deformation. Fracture mechanics predict that even brittle solids can be machined by the action of plastic flow, as it is the case for metal, leaving crack free surfaces when the removal process is performed at less than a critical depth of cut.
For the processing of piezoelectric ceramics the state of the art shows that further fundamental studies have to be carried out in order to learn about the cutting behavior. Within a first research period basic knowledge about the cutting behavior of PZT ceramic was gained. With this knowledge the basic machinability could be classified. Due to these investigations it is known which parameters and tools are suitable for machining. Additionally, the monitoring process during machining with microgrinding pins could be successfully implemented. However, these studies have been restricted to the production of grooves. Complex structures such as pillar arrays have not been made. Therefore, it is yet not identified what aspect ratios can be achieved in piezoelectric ceramics. Within this funding period the processing of piezoelectric ceramics will be further investigated, based on the results of the initial research project.
In addition, the monitoring process during micromachining is limited. The forces that occur are very low. Moreover, the maximum revolutions of the spindle system have to be very high in order to achieve the re-quired cutting speeds. This is often in the range of the natural frequency of the sensors, so that no proper measurements can be taken. Therefore, special sensors, with natural frequencies outside the excited fre-quencies, have to be used. Conventional positioning methods in macro-scale machining usually reach accu-racies that are not sufficient for micromachining. Therefore, it is necessary to develop process monitoring systems that increase the machining accuracy. So far, the quality of the components is determined outside of the machine. However, it is not possible to clamp the components back in the same position in the ma-chine. Thus, a post-processing of the structures is not yet possible. In addition, micro machining is very time consuming. Early detection of tool failure would therefore lead to a possible reduction of post-processing time. A large proportion of studies that deal with the monitoring process in micromachining focus on geometrically defined cutting especially milling and drilling. Periodic signals are analyzed whereas the change of the signal indicates tool wear. Regarding the monitoring process for micro-grinding only few studies exist. These deal with the use of grinding pins. The influence of tool diameter on the monitoring process has not yet been investigated. In addition studies on the use of a monitoring process in micro-grinding with Dicingblades are lacking. As part of the research project this gap should be closed in order to identify process-tool failure. In the first research period a potential connection between the tool state and the force measurements was found to be verified in the period requested.
The trend for product individualization results in a demand for small and more flexible production series. The improvement of production flexibility increases the control complexity of the manufacturing tasks, leading to big challenges for quality assurance systems. The major challenge faced by a quality assurance system applied to small series production is to guarantee the needed quality level already at the first run (first time right on time). This demands a constant adaption of the quality assurance system behavior according to the dynamic manufacturing conditions, which can be achieved by the improvement of cognitive and autonomy aspects of the manufacturing systems. The innovative concept of Cognitive Metrology focuses on increasing the manufacturing efficiency and quality within small series through the capacitation of flexible and adaptive production metrology.
X-Ray computed tomography (CT) is an emerging non-destructive technology for the dimensional measurement of precision plastic parts with complex geometry. With CT this geometry can be acquired holistically, i.e. including both interior and exterior features, at very high point density. However, CT is a complex process with many influencing factors and non-linear interdependencies. Up to now the optimization of dimensional CT measurements eludes a holistic analytic description. So, currently the set-up parameter values are defined based on the user expertise. By this it remains uncertain if the chosen set-up is metrologically the optimal one. Also the finding of task-adapted parameter values can be elaborate and time-consuming. So the task is the efficient definition of these values returning the smallest uncertainty in measurement for a given CT device.
The number of small-torque applications in science and technology is growing. Well known examples are micro screws, micro tools, micro gears and micro actuators. But small torques arises as well e.g. in screwing and joining processes in mass production and in a number of micro mechanical devices like digital mirror devises and angular sensors. For the automated processes and to guarantee a high product quality, the small torques should be known with an adequate accuracy. Therefore, a closed traceability chain for the physical quantity torque, especially for small torques is needed. The current state of the art does not meet the requirements. This fact raises the need of a new primary Torque Standard Machine (TSM) for small torques with reduced relative uncertainty.
Metal working fluid emulsions (MWF) tend to separate over their life time caused by mechanical, thermal and biological stress in the manufacturing process. This quality and stability change of the MWF alters the physical and chemical properties as well as the machining performance. This loss of fluid stability is a big challenge for the monitoring and quality management of the machine operation. Moreover, this leads to increased costs and environmental problems, since the tapped fluids have to be refilled, recycled (environmental best-case after complete phase separation) or disposed (environmental worst case; e.g. thermal treatment). Thus, there exists a strong need for an easy to use in-situ monitor of the stability of metal working fluids that enables real time response in order to keep machine performance.
In order to minimize consumption of metal working fluids in manufacturing processes, the overall project goal is the "Development of a device for continuous in-process control of MWF quality and stability". The project is focused on the development of the measuring device and suitable data treatment leading to the interconnected project modules:
- Development and testing of the device,
- Destabilization mechanics of metal working fluids,
- Data treatment (neural networks and/or numerical algorithms),
- Coupled coalescence and CFD models for MWF,
which intend to enhance the understanding of coalescence as well as to contribute to an improved environmental and economical balance of the metal working process.
A Federative Factory Data Management has to support the factory data capturing in the early phases of Factory Planning Process. Data capturing from involved domains is a key factor for a flexible production environment. Involved domains are "Product Development", "Process Planning", "Resource Planning", "Production Control" etc.
Factory Planning Process can be characterized as a bridge between "Product Development" and "Production Control" within the "Product Creation Process". Generated factory data are results of the usage of domain-specific IT tools (e.g. CAD, CAM, ERP, etc.). Consequences are deficits in data storage and data redundancies. Possibility to handle this is a consistent IT tool-integration by a system like a Federative Factory Data Management.
Goal of 1st project phase is the development of a Federative Factory Data Management to support the integration of factory data resulting from domain-specific IT tools. A reduction of redundant, heterogeneous and inconsistent data storages has to be achieved. Core is the federative integration of IT tools by the usage of web services.
A running concept of Federative Factory Data Management is the basis for an app-based FedMan. (Mobile-FedMan). App-based extensions of Federative Factory Data Management functionalities have to be developed:
- Consideration of roles and views
- Integration of Material Flow Simulation as planning verification
- Ensuring of data security
Goal is the access of intermediate states of products, processes and resources at any time directly from shop-floor of a factory.
Conventional grinding wheels comprising sintered corundum present capable solutions for efficient hightech manufacturing tasks. The performance of this tool category depends substantially on the grinding wheel specification and the conditions in the wheel manufacturing process. Until now the wheel selection for specific manufacturing processes is mostly based on long lasting experiences and implicit knowledge. Significant findings concerning the interaction of the common sintered grain types with the available fused grain types are so far barely known. Information about optimized sintered grain proportions regarding productivity and cost is only sporadic available. A quick test method is therefore fundamental for explicit appraising the performance of innovative wheel specifications. Applying it in an industrial environment will substantially improve the efficiency of developing customized wheel specifications.
The pressure on the worldwide mould and die industry has been continuously increased due to the constant growth in international competition. In order to remain competitive, the leading industries must increase its productivity by reducing machining time and costs while, increasing the product quality. High Speed Cutting (HSC) and High Performance Cutting (HPC) have the potential to fulfill these demands. However, investigations for increasing productivity lead to time consuming and costly experiments. Furthermore, in many cases the results of experiments performed under controlled environment, cannot simply be assigned to other machines andnconstraints. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the understanding about processes, machine tool behavior and their relations that impact the manufacturing quality and productivity, by focusing on a holistic optimization of sculptured surface manufacturing.
Modern facilities for energy production need very large components fulfilling increasing requirements with respect to their material properties. This implies that the related forming processes are optimized with respect to metal flow as well as microstructure evolution. The overall goal of the project is to investigate procedures allowing to optimize complex incremental forging processes using numerical process simulation in connection with automatic optimization. The chosen example are large forged hollow shafts for wind turbines which could significantly save weight compared to currently forged solid shafts or cast hollow shafts. However this requires that the microstructure achieved is fine and homogeneous enough to allow ultrasonic testing with high resolution.
In the first project period a parametric description for simulation of incremental forging of hollow shafts and evaluation criteria for the simulation results have been developed. Using these numerical tools and experiments a forging strategy for a simplified short hollow shaft was successfully planned and realized on the 6.3 MN forging press focusing on the optimization of metal flow.
In continuation of the close cooperation with the Brazilian partner LdTM (Laboratório de Transformacao Mecânica - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) the second project period is dedicated towards further development of the numerical tools and their exemplary application to a more realistic and complicated demonstrator geometry, now including optimization of the microstructure development. In the case of successful validation of this procedure the models shall be applied to study which scaling effects are to be expected when scaling up from model size to realistic size.
- Today`s automotive industry is still concentrated on efficiency, individual production processes and financial objectives such as market share. Meeting customer demand for highly customizable vehicles leads to an increasing number of variants and growing complexity. In combination with increasing market dynamics customer orders are more and more unpredictable.
- In order to lower costs and inventory levels while still being responsive to customer needs, it is beneficial to retain a (intermediate) product in a neutral product status in an automotive supply chain as long as possible.
- For Brazil, German automotive OEMs and their local productions play an important role (vice-versa). Thus this especially holds true for the resulting long and global supply chains as being implemented with this emerging market.
- Therefore, the placement of the order penetration point (OPP) is a key decision in supply chain design for emerging markets since the product will be differentiated according to the customers` requirements only after the OPP.
This project is inserted into the agreement reached between Technische Universität Clausthal - TUC and Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Parana - PUCPR and as well as into the strategic interest of the BRAGECRIM Program. This project has the aim of developing and improving technologies on producing precision EDM electrodes by "Layer Manufacturing Technique" (LMT) to create Electro-Discharge Machining advanced 3D products. During the first phase of this project different metal powders will be created and investigated for their EDM properties. The electrodes will be manufactured with different materials using LMTechnique based on Laser sintering via IMW-TU Clausthal facilities. The necessary powder material blends will be obtained using powder metallurgy know-how from the ZFW-TU Clausthal. The assessment and improvement of EDMachining performance measures will be in charge of LAUS-PUCPR. The partners` collaborative work will enable the specification of electrodes geometries and materials applicable for precision EDMachining. In the second phase, the previously developed results will be applied to complex electrodes. Furthermore the wear rate and precision of the electrodes will be improved by optimizing of the post/building-processing steps and powder properties. Moreover, the EDM performance of a real industrial and hybrid electrode (LMT skin and standard core) will be analyzed. This project will finally establish a fast LMT-EDM process chain for small complex products in different application fields, one example could be dental prostheses. The complex shaped electrodes will be manufactured with the defined materials of the first period. The expected outputs are the electrode performance correlating EDMachining and LMT variables, the specification of adequate materials and post processing e.g. coatings for LMT-EDM electrodes, the development of EDM technology tables and procedures for design and fabrication of precision electrodes and an envelope with adequate process EDM parameters settings. The project results will be tested on a real industrial application of a particular electrode geometry using an adequate EDM procedure. The sustainable development of the German-Brazilian production chain through innovative technology is considered in this project. The project will not only be an opportunity to manufacture EDM electrodes, but also to establish a communication channel for technology and human resources transfer between TU Clausthal and PUCPR linked to the Brazilian/German industries.
Manufacturing supply chains source raw material on a global scale, utilize regional cost advantages for production and embed partners with outstanding expertise in their networks. Their goal is to create and to sustain a competitive and reliable network that can cope with unexpected perturbations. To this end, decentralized operations need to be precisely synchronized in order to materialize their potential benefits. However, operational planning and control activities are quite often performed in a disconnected manner, being limited to a function / department-oriented view. The aim of the research project is to develop and implement new concepts, methods and management policies for planning and control of integrated production and transport systems on the operational level. By their combination this integration will allow for a better synchronization of material flows, enhanced competitiveness and a better handling of perturbations.
For advanced ceramic composites, affordable manufacturing is still the most essential shortcoming with respect to successful commercial use. This holds particularly for components made out of composites with complex hierarchical structures and high demands of mechanical performance and reliability at the same time. This is the case of Fibre-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites (FRCMCs), which have been developed to overcome the intrinsic brittleness and lack of reliability of monolithic ceramics. Their major advantages include high temperature capability, light weight, good corrosion resistance and adequate damage tolerance. There is a wide spectrum of FRCMCs depending on the chemical composition of the matrix and reinforcement, although at present only Cf-C/SiC composites produced by the silicon infiltration route have obtained commercial production level. However, fibre reinforced composites based on oxides (Oxide-Oxide FRCMC) would offer essential advantages with respect to long time stability in oxidizing atmospheres. Although in the past decades there has been a considerable interest in Oxide-Oxide FRCMC, only a few production concepts meet the requirements in view of cost and performance so far. The present work aims at reducing the production costs of FRCMCs by using a combination of conventional powder metallurgy routes and well-known production concepts existent for manufacturing polymer matrix composites, in an approach based on the prepreg technology. Additionally, reactive based matrices such as Reaction Bonded Aluminum Oxide (RBAO) will be used, which will lead to advanced performance and reliability by enabling the consolidation of defect-free oxide matrices. Advanced shaping techniques based on CAD/CAM concept (rapid prototyping by LOM) will be additionally integrated, favouring easy small scale manufacturing, which is in general very typical for these materials.
Manufacturing processes in general consist of materials solidification processes, metal forming processes and more than one straightening process, machining and heat treatment. Machining and final straightening is then necessary to guarantee the required shape and dimensions of machine parts. Cold forming processes are energy efficient and clean and are used in production processes with an increasing number. Cold forming on the other hand significantly changes materials properties and automotive parts still need a surface heat treatment or have to be through hardened completely to fulfill strength requirements. An improvement of properties during one production step consequently can result in problems in the next, one of the following or finally in the last manufacturing step. The transmission of distortion potentials from one manufacturing step to the other in a cold drawing processing line with additional induction hardening is analyzed experimentally and partially modelled. A DoE-plan (design of experiments) of main affecting parameters is used to identify effects and correlations. A reduction of one or more manufacturing steps or ideas to implement changes and select parameters that minimize distortion is expected.
Goals: The as far as possible observation of materials properties, parameters of the involved cold drawing process, straightening and polishing operations as well the involved cutting operations and the final induction heat treatment were the central aims of the planned international cooperation. The identification of the 5 to 6 main important process parameters for the activation and the generation of distortion potentials by means of the method of design of experiments (DoE) would be able to identify statistically significant process parameters and ideally to mi-nimize manufacturing operations as e.g. additional machining. Consequently Distortion Engineering is the knowledge of distortion potential carriers in each manufacturing step and the use of compensation potentials in each of these.
The current industrial polishing process of stoneware tiles is considered energetically inefficient, and though undesired glossiness gradients may occur onto the polished surface, known as "polishing shadows".
- Remanufacturing enables to close the material loop at the end of life cycle of equipment minimizing the environment impact
- Brazil and Germany need sustainable technologies to meet challenges of 21st century
- Sustainability viewed from the perspective of production technology essentially represents the increase of usage efficiency of resources.
- General societal, economic and ecological conditions compel a rethinking from the traditional industrial society to the sustainable design of value creation nets.
- In order to reduce the consumption of resources, a rethinking to a closed loop economy is required
Within the BRAGECRIM project Non-Destructive Impact Damage Detection on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (IDD-Metro), UFSC`s PhD student Herberth Birck Fröhlich is in Aachen since July 2018 for a period of one year. The main task of him is to conduct researches on composites images and its defects classification using machine learning and computer vision on thermography images obtained from non-destructive analysis. Regarding this topic, actual efforts are about the decomposition of thermography images containing multiple defects in order to elaborate a classification framework and generative models.
Besides that, he had also the opportunity to gain experience and discover new methods on other metrological areas, such as coordinate measurement machine systems and car parts automated classification - both corresponding to industrial projects. These new experiences obtained from both BRAGECRIM and industrial projects may benefit each other, making this stay useful for further developments on both institutes, RWTH – WZL (Aachen) and UFSC (Florianopolis), strengthening this partnership.
After 4 years of progresses and advancements, Project SCoPE finishes its activities. In the 10th Annual BRAGECRIM Meeting, the partners presented the results of the last year, which demonstrated the development of smart components interactions within smart assemblies and the improvements with a digital twin demonstrator. The project aimed at promoting individual physical manufacturing components as information carriers, comprising a digital data representation of their physical properties, manufacturing history, customizations, and more. These digital data representation would be applied in communication-controlled production processes.
One of the project studies was based on the smart components ability to communicate in the production environment and on the mapping of interactions between components, resources and one another, which led to the development of a concept for smart components interactions within smart assemblies. Following the concept, the master component will carry assembly information and components information, allowing easier and faster product customization. The new assembly flow is conducted by this master component, which will also deal with other components and resources.
Another study demonstrated that the digital twin was successfully implemented. Considering that the digital twin is an instance of the 3D CAD geometry model, which is based on the characteristics, conditions and behavior of the associate physical twin, and on data connection between them, the digital twin was successful in gathering data about its physical associate and making it available at any time throughout the lifecycle. It could also mirror the movement of the associate twin. The test case was a bending beam test bench.
During its 4 years, Project SCoPE produced a total number of 50 publications, including books and book chapters, papers in conference proceedings and in journals. The coordinators often received invitations to disseminate the knowledge generated by the project, and presented a total of 23 speeches on both academy and industry events. In addition, SCoPE also promoted 15 study missions, exchanging students between the Brazilian and German partner universities. Two study missions are still occurring. The Brazilian students from the Laboratory for Computer Integrated Design and Manufacturing (SCPM) at Unimep are conducting part of their PhD and Mestrado researches in the Department of Computer Integrated Design (DiK) at TU Darmstadt.
Aiming at energy consumption reduction conventional heat treatment is being replaced by thermomechanical processing. This replacement is being assessed by means of continuous cooling bainitic steel which is being employed for production of forged components. The optimal processing window is being determined by multiple thermomechanical parameters. These include conventional hot forging, combined forgings (two steps) and bainitic field forgings. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) of all forging courses and parameters are being carried out in order to converge in a coherent model for the employed steel with the commercial software forge NTx 2.1.
Thermomechanical analysis by dilatometry experiments, performed at IWT- Bremen, enables the study about the phase transformations which occur during continuous cooling of the material. As extension of the Gleeble testing, an in-process measurement of the materials transformation are being performed to allow an in situ control of the microstructure evolution. This analysis generates a deeper understanding of the transformation kinetics and the eddy current signals. Additionally, in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out in Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), in order to study the development of the bainite microstructure under different process conditions.
The thermomechanical parameters comprehend a wide array of variables, including different forging temperatures, deformation degrees, cooling regimes and sample geometries. Moreover, different strain rate effects are being assessed utilizing different presses in Brazil. All of these parameters impacts are being evaluated through microstructural response by means of light optical microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative data of these microstructural responses are also being built. Sequentially, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction will also be carried out.
In order to achieve high surface hardness and good wear properties by friction, the treatment of plasma nitriding is being investigated. Therefore, different temperature and treatment time parameters were tested. In the investigated situations, it was possible to obtain zone of compounds (white layer) in all nitrided samples above 450 °C, regardless of temperature and treatment time. In addition, plasma nitriding contributes significantly to the increase in surface hardness, even under conditions where the white layer has not been detected.
In recent works, the die cover concept was successfully applied on an industry relevant geometry for 40 forging cycles and proved the protective effects of die covers regarding the thermal loads. In the designed case, a cross geometry that can be used to produce typical cross components, e.g. universal joint, was selected as die geometry. The die covers were made from 1 mm thickness sheets of 22MnB5, a press hardening steel, by deep drawing operation. Heat treatment was conducted to increase the hardness of the die cover to around 540HV. During the 40 forging cycles, the thickness of the die covers decreased but no distortions or folds occurred. In the most critical region of the die covers, a thickness change of 0.6 mm was observed due to mechanical wear. However, it was found that with an increasing number of forging cycles, the thickness reduction of die cover reduced, which indicated the possibility of a longer service life. Besides, by applying the die cover, both the maximum temperature and temperature amplitude inside forging dies was decreased by 40 °C according to measurements.
Further works will focus on investigation of applying the die cover concept in multi-stage forging processes and exploration of service life and protective effects of die covers.
As the development of the Learnstrument reaches its refinement phase, the feedback and test results from external users becomes more important, as such, the last version of the tool has been tested and the feedback given by a total of 32 respondents.
Aiming to address the transitions towards I 4.0, the Learnstrument places the learner as the decision maker in a virtual industry who must guide his or her factory to become competitive in this new context. To do so, he or she selects improvement projects both at the factory and process level to achieve performance indicators levels that are set as goals. In this process the user is presented to design principles of I 4.0, a myriad of relevant technologies and process improvements to select from, getting acquainted to them to make meaningful choices to reach the proposed goals. By selecting an option to implement, the user can see the effect of the selected changes visually in the production floor and its impacts in the performance indicators.
The Learnstrument is equipped with a learning room (fig. 2), where the player has access to selected information on industry 4.0 using text, images and videos to facilitate learning.
To test this tool, undergraduate and graduate students from the University of São Paulo and TU Berlin had access to the latest version and without external assistance have been asked to use the Learnstrument and report their answer in an online form. None of the students had any contact with the tool before. After finishing the challenge proposed in the Learnstrument, they were to send their results and fill the report. The responses were compiled leading to valuable feedback, with some of the main results listed below:
With these answers, the Learnstrument has been modified for another round of tests before it will be made available online freely for other users. In addition, the graphics are to be revised and transferred to a modern industrial environment. The idea is to distribute in a platform for companies and universities in Brazil and Germany to use it as they see fit. This platform will also contain the assets and codes developed during this project free for use, to facilitate the development of other tools as well as the link to the articles, guidelines and frameworks written in this project.
The results from this project have been and will further be compiled for publication.
In order to assure a high performance of dynamic manufacturing systems, the project AdaptiveSBO developed a data-driven adaptive simulation-based optimization (SBO) method that derives optimized machine assignment and dispatching rules according to the current state of a manufacturing system in real-time. The approach couples an SBO method determining optimized rules for shop floor control with a framework for the data exchange between the SBO method and the manufacturing system. In this way, the optimization always considers the current state of the system.
The simulation model is used to evaluate the performance of possible solutions generated by a genetic algorithm. Good solutions are derived through iterating this simulation-based optimization approach. The solutions are fed back to and applied on the shop floor. The developed approach is able to react on dynamic and stochastic effects such as fluctuation processing times, machine breakdowns, absence of workers and rush orders.
The project team has developed significant research results that have been published in high-ranked scientific journals, such as the International Journal of Production Research and the CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, and have been presented at leading scientific conferences, such as the CIRP General Assembly, the "WGP Jahreskongress", the Winter Simulation Conference or the IFAC World Congress, among others. Moreover, the project has enabled a fruitful cooperation with several short working missions and long-term study missions of the associated professors and students. In this way, the project provides a basis for a long-term cooperation that will be continued in future joint research.
In the last months, the team of the project AdaptiveSBO developed valuable results concluding the project and giving an outlook on possible future research directions. The paper "Data-driven production control for complex and dynamic manufacturing systems" has been accepted for presentation at the 2018 CIRP General Assembly in Tokyo, Japan, and will be published in the high-ranked journal CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology
Digitalization allows for production control based on the current state of a manufacturing system. Thereof, the paper proposes and applies a data-driven adaptive planning and control approach using simulation-based optimization to determine most suitable dispatching rules in real-time under varying conditions. The data integration between the real manufacturing system and the simulation model was implemented through a data-exchange framework. The approach was evaluated in a scenario of a Brazilian manufacturer of mechanical components for the automotive industry, achieving better operational performance compared to the planning procedure previously applied by the company as well as in comparison to static dispatching rules.
An alternative approach was shown in the paper "Potential of a Multi-Agent System Approach for Production Control in Smart Factories", which has been accepted for presentation at the 2018 IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing in Bergamo, Italy, and for publication in IFAC PapersOnLine. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) are a promising approach to exploit new trends and technologies in the context of Industry 4.0 in order to achieve improved planning and control performance. This paper applies an MAS approach to control the production in job shop manufacturing systems. Within a simulation study based on a real industrial case, the approach achieves a good performance compared to the standard scheduling approach applied by the considered company.
The paper "Towards a simulation-based optimization approach to integrate supply chain planning and control" has recently been presented at the 2018 CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems in Stockholm, Sweden, and will be published in Procedia CIRP. This paper developed a concept for extending the data-driven method for production control to an integrated supply chain planning and control. The adaptive simulation-based optimization approach is capable of dealing with complex systems as well as considering a dynamic environment with stochastic behavior. A test case was presented to evaluate the computation time feasibility and the solution quality. The method provided a convergence to a best solution in different experiments within short amounts of time, coping with the requirements of complex and uncertain scenarios.
The processing windows for forging experiments are being determined, detecting the phase transformations during the cooling process. The useful processing parameters range is being determined for the material processing in laboratory experiments and by means of FEM simulation.
Different forging routes are planned in the project as deformation in the austenitic, ferritic and bainitic fields and also combinations of forging steps at different temperatures. Thus, initial experiments of forging in the austenitic field with were carried out with two different cooling methods (free cooling in air and air controlled flow) and three deformation degrees (20%, 40%, 60%) were performed at UFRGS - Brazil (figure a), aiming to verify metallurgical and mechanical properties of the material (figure b).
Thermomechanical analysis by dilatometry experiments were performed at IWT- Bremen, enabling to study the phase transformations which occur during continuous cooling of the material. The bainitic transformation start and end temperatures were defined through expansion curves obtained in the experiments (figure c). The results will allow the understanding of strain and cooling rates influence in the phase transformation and final properties.
Forging tests has been perform at forging temperature of 1170°C. The commercial numerical simulation software Forge NTx 2.1 was employed for a reverse analysis method of the forging experiment. It was possible to correlate the local temperature of the specimen obtained by thermal analysis with infrared camera and the simulation for this specific experimental condition, predicting the local temperature in the material during forging stroke using FEA (Finite element Analysis). These results are important to establish a database that will be used to determine the process window parameters for the steels under investigation in the project.
Additionally, in-situ experiments will be performed at the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble in order to achieve a better understanding about the evolution of phase transformations on-line. These results are important to: (i) future application of surface treatments; (ii) forging experiments at different fields and (iii) forging experiments with different die geometries.
The ForCover, acronym for "forging covers", is a concept aiming to prolong tool life and decrease repair costs of forging dies. The basic idea is to replace the surface of a forging die by an inexpensive and easy-to-exchange sheet metal part (forging cover). The forging cover protects the forging die from the high-level thermal and mechanical load during the process and can be easily exchanged after being worn out.
In recent works, the forging cover concept was experimentally applied on two different geometries. An axisymmetric geometry to produce gear blanks and a cross geometry presents typical components like a universal joint. In both cases, the forging covers made of 22MnB5 sheet have a longer service life than ten forging cycles, which is the maximum service life of the forging covers developed in the first phase of this project. The forging cover made for gear blanks went through 18 forging cycles without failure and the forging cover for universal joint went through 40 forging cycles without distortions and excessive deformations. Simulation models were built and validated by the experiments. The simulation results indicate that using the forging cover decreases the maximum temperature and temperature amplitude within the forging dies, so that the forging dies reach the steady state earlier and in a lower temperature range than the forging dies without forging covers. Therefore, the total thermal loads of forging dies were decreased significantly. In addition, the mechanical loads and wear were decreased by using forging covers according to simulation results as show in Figure 2.
Besides the exploration of industrial geometries, the boundary conditions and process parameters of applications are also being studied, such as the tribo-condition using different forging parameters and the manufacture process of forging covers.
In the next steps, the wear and plastic deformation of the forging dies with and without forging covers will be compared. Moreover, evaluations of the service life of both forging covers and forging dies will be performed.
Improve product life cycle by the appropriate choice of a manufacturing operation and by a correct process design is one of the motivations of this BRAGECRIM project, whose focus consists of investigating the effects of turning and ball burnishing on the workpiece surface and subsurface. Regarding to this, high levels of surface compressive residual stress are sought, as they contribute to the increase of fatigue resistance.
Within this scenario, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed in order to predict residual stress values after ball burnishing, as well as optimizes process parameters in order to increase the intensity of surface compressive residual stress.
Ball burnishing experiments in AISI 1060 high carbon steel were conducted under different values of pressure, number of passes and material properties. Both input (burnishing feed and number of passes) and output (residual stress values) parameters were employed for training the ANN.
A comparison between the residual stress values obtained experimentally and from the ANN (during training, validation and test phases) together with the corresponding percentage error is given in Figure 1. From the 16 experiments concerned with the training phase, the maximum difference between experimental and predicted residual stress was of 9% (test #8). In spite of this high value, the proper way to assess the performance of a neural network is based on the results of the test phase. Under this condition, the highest error values were 0.55, 1.73, 1.43 and 0.96%, thus suggesting that the proposed model is capable of satisfactorily predicting surface residual stress under new ball burnishing conditions.
After the optimization procedure, it was noted that compressive residual stresses of higher intensity were obtained for the material in the hardened condition and that the higher the burnishing pressure and number of passes, the more compressive the residual stress.
More details about the results can be found in: Magalhaes, F.C.; Ventura, C.E.H.; Abrao, A.M.; Denkena, B.; Breidenstein, B.; Meyer, K. Prediction of surface residual stress and hardness induced by ball burnishing through neural networks. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 2018(accepted for publication).
The innovations towards an Industry 4.0 are having a disruptive influence on the manufacturing industry by establishing an interplay of smart factories, smart products and smart services embedded in an internet of things and services also called industrial internet. Meeting the future needs for learning and in-work training requires the development of new learning conductive technologies, materials and methods.
Learnstruments are objects which automatically demonstrate their functionality to the learner. They use existing and new information and communication technology (ICT), aim at increasing the learning and teaching productivity, provide adequate learning goals to the user and support the user in achieving the learning goals. Learning takes places predominately through experiential and problem-based learning. Due to a high degree of realism, the acquired knowledge can be transferred more easily to the industrial practice.
In a first step, relevant principles of Industry 4.0 as well as qualification profiles for current and future engineers have been identified and described. In parallel, a generic framework for the development of Learnstruments was developed. Now, on this basis, a concrete Learnstrument to convey the principles of Industry 4.0 is being realized in the form of a virtual learning environment by using the game engine Unity. Learners are confronted with challenges in the form of small learning games that focus on changes regarding the factory layout and production planning. They decide for themselves which new technologies to apply, to further develop their factory in order to cope with these challenges. To support the decision-making process, learners get access to relevant information in the form of texts, audio recordings and videos. By facing and solving these challenges, learners develop an understanding of the transition towards a more connected Industry 4.0 reality, highlighting its benefits and difficulties, the technologies that enable it and the design principles to realize its potential.
The next steps are practical evaluations of the Learnstrument, the collection of data from its usage, implementation of the required changes and determination of a distribution model.
In the context of the IDD-Metro - Non-Destructive Impact Damage Detection on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - project, the parties - CECS/UFABC, LABMETRO/UFSC and WZL, RWTH Aachen - have worked in the development of a new method to extract point clouds of composite samples from phase image acquired with lock-in thermography. The method is based on image fusion, which allows determining regions of the composite samples with and without defects. The proposed method is definitely a step forward in the direction of full automation of 3D data acquisition using lock-in thermography. In parallel, experiments have been performed to investigate the CT capability to characterize low-velocity impact damages in composite samples and convolutional neural networks have been applied to classify the presence of defects in shearography images of tubes repaired with epoxy reinforced with glass fiber.
Contributions to conferences have resulted from these activities, such as the participation as speaker in the 2018 International Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography and in the 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks. The work mission of a Brazilian researcher at the WZL, RWTH Aachen was also important to define the courses of the collaborative project in its second phase.
The vision of the research project SCoPE is to promote individual physical manufacturing components as information carriers. Information-carrying manufacturing components comprise a digital data representation about their intermediate manufacturing states, their manufacturing history, physical properties, customizations, purpose etc., and utilize this digital data representation for communication-controlled production processes. In a next step, the project aims to move from an alphanumerical to a model-based representation of a component's state and behavior. The model-based representation takes the shape of a digital twin. A digital twin is a comprehensive virtual representation of an individual component, assembly or product. It includes the properties, condition and behavior of the real-life object (physical twin) through models and data and is coupled to its physical twin through a bidirectional network connection.
To show the promising concept of digital twins a demonstrator was developed at DiK research lab. The demonstrator consists of three parts. A physical twin represented by an electromechanical bending beam test bench, a digital twin of said test bench in the form of a CAD and a finite element method (FEM) model, and an Internet of Things (IoT) platform that collects and visualizes the generated data of the demonstrator. This way the test bench exists both in real space as a physical twin and in virtual space as a digital twin. Physical and virtual twins are connected through a multidirectional client-broker-architecture and thus have the ability to communicate with each other. The physical demonstrator can be controlled through the IoT platform from any internet capable device. Actuating the electric motors results in a bending of the clamped beam. Force sensors relay the resulting force to the platform using the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. The digital twin mirrors the movement of the drives and the linear guide unit and performs a finite element analysis (FEA), which calculates and visualizes the stress within the bending beam.
The demonstrator is featured in following recent journal publications:
This study is part of the project "Smart Components within Smart Production Processes and Environments" (SCoPE), part of the BRAGECRIM collaborative research initiative between Brazil and German in manufacturing technology. This project associates universities research institutes from both countries to exchange knowledge, researchers and students through work missions.
The research was based on individual components as information carriers. These components comprise a digital data representation about their manufacturing states with historical, physical properties, customizations, etc. and utilize this digital data representation for real-time production planning and management. Within the project, it was developed a communication concept for smart components interactions within smart assemblies.
The assembly process is important to join a group of components (parts and sub-sets) until a final product is concluded. In order for the component to become a final product, it must communicate with other components available in the production to find its assembly pairs. These pairs interact with the environment in search of the resources capable of performing their assembly needs (assembly operations, transport from one point to other and storage over the process) as a set composed of individual parts that have the same objectives.
In the developed concept it was analysed and mapped all the interactions and information exchanged over the smart assembly process. It aims to reach a better understanding of the smart assembly processes to avoid the creation and exchange of redundant information. To validate the theoretical scenario, a case study was developed.
This research project was presented, defended and approved as a Master Thesis in the Department of Computer Integrated Design (DiK), at the TU-Darmstadt in the beginning of 2018. All the data is being compiled for a publication during this year.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Robert Schmitt (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen University) on the German side and Prof. Dr. Eng. Armando Albertazzi Gonçalves Jr. (LABMETRO/ Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC) on the Brazilian side coordinate the research project IDD-Metro "Non-Destructive Impact Damage Detection on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics". The project's goal is the development of a non-destructive impact damage detection for carbon fiber reinforced plastics.
Recent outcomes of the research activities amongst others are the design of an impact tower, a measurement process based on optical lock-in thermography for the depth determination of defects and an image processing algorithm for the automated defect size determination. The results are presented and published on various occasions. On a test bench the activities were illustrated on the "AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium" with over 1,000 German and international experts from production technology and related disciplines (image). To improve the scientific impact the project outcome were additionally presented on the 7th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography in the contribution "CT applied as a reference technique for evaluating active lock-in thermography in characterizing CFRP impact damage test samples" in Leuven (link to the publication). Furthermore, in Karlsruhe Sarah Ekanayake held a presentation on the topic "Method for quantitative 3D evaluation of defects in CFRP using active lock-in thermography" on the 1st CIRP Conference on Composite Materials Parts Manufacturing (CCMPM). The contribution is published here.
Within the BRAGECRIM program, the project AdaptiveSBO (An adaptive simulation-based optimization approach for the scheduling and control of dynamic manufacturing systems) is headed on the German side by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag (BIBA/Uni-Bremen) and on the Brazilian side by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Enzo Morosini Frazzon (Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC). In Brazil, the project is inserted in the activities of the CNPq Research Group Production and Logistic Systems and at the Production and Logistic Intelligent Systems Laboratory (ProLogIS/UFSC – http://www.prologis.ufsc.br). In the scope of the project, a data-driven adaptive simulation-based optimization procedure for the planning and control of dynamic production systems is being developed.
After visits of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Enzo Morosini Frazzon, Prof. Dr. Guilherme Vieira, B. Sc. Diego Evandro Mazzuco, Prof. Dr. Mauricio Uriona Maldonado, M. Sc. Ricardo Pimentel and B. Sc. Matheus Leusin, there are currently two Brazilian performing study missions at the BIBA: M. Sc. Matheus Pires and B. Sc. Ian Cavalcante. Ricardo Pimentel, Matheus Pires and Matheus Leusin worked together with BIBA employee Mirko Kück on project work packages during their stay within the cooperation project AdaptiveSBO. In the other direction Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag and Mirko Kück recently returned from a successfull mission to UFSC / Florianopolis, in which they also took part in the 9th. BRAGECRIM Annual Meeting at CIMATEC / Salvador.
The project is based on a vibrant cooperation between the Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW).
Cu-based shape memory alloys generally suffer from an inherent brittleness in the coarse-grained state. Within this project rapid cooling techniques shall be employed to overcome this limitation and to make these alloys more accessible to application. An increasing cooling rate is an effective measure for reducing the grain size. Among the employed techniques is selective laser melting, which not only allows the production of intricate sample shapes but also to modify the microstructure locally. As is shown in Fig. 1, the processing parameters (i.e. scanning speed in mm/s and the track overlap in %) determine the martensite-to-austenite transformation peak- temperature. This opens an avenue for adjusting the material for a specific application without the need for post-processing. More details can be found in the journal Shape Memory and Superelasticity (Volume 3, pages 24 – 36), in which these results have been published.
Currently, our partner in São Carlos uses alternative approaches to produce refined microstructures, i.e. severe plastic deformation. The transformation properties and the mechanical properties will be explored and compared with the selectively laser-melted specimens. In this way, we hope to better understand which factors determine the transformation characteristics of Cu-based shape memory alloys.
The present findings and the next steps have been recently discussed during a visit of our partners, Prof. Dr. Claudio Kiminami and Prof. Dr. Claudemiro Bolfarini, in Dresden in November 2017.
Machining process as an important step towards a product's life cycle behavior is the motivation of this BRAGECRIM project, whose focus consists of investigating the effects of turning and deep rolling on the workpiece surface and subsurface. In turning, cutting edge geometry plays an important role due to its influence on forces, temperature and surface quality. In this regard, experiments were conducted to assess the influence of different edge geometries on the machinability of a hardened steel.
Bars of AISI 4140 hardened steel were turned with coated tungsten carbide inserts, whose microgeometries (Fig. 1a) were produced through brushing (Fig. 1b). Continuous dry turning tests (Fig. 1c) were performed at constant cutting speed and depth of cut and using two levels of feed rate. The force components were measured with a piezoelectric dynamometer and the temperature of the chip was measured with an infrared pyrometer.
Irrespectively of the microgeometry, the increment in feed rate has mainly affected the cutting force due to the larger shear area (Fig. 2a). The bluntness of the edge makes it harder to penetrate the workpiece material, causing an increase of both passive and feed forces. Higher forces are mainly obtained by employing higher values of Sα due to a more dramatic increase in the contact length compared to higher Sγ values.
Specific energy was not altered by microgeometry (Fig. 2b). However, the increase in feed rate reduces the specific energy, thus elevating cutting efficiency. These results can be compared with Fig. 2c, which shows that chip temperature is also approximately constant for the different edge geometries tested and decreases with a higher feed rate.
More details about the results can be found in: Ventura, C.E.H.; Chaves, H.S.; Campos Rubio, J.C.; Abrão, A.M.; Denkena, B.; Breidenstein, B. The influence of the cutting tool microgeometry on the machinability of hardened AISI 4140 steel. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00170-016-9582-4, 2016.
This project focuses on the development of knowledge and innovating solutions for critical aspects of micro-manufacturing, concentrating on the production of molds for micro-featured products, targeting the improvement of productivity, efficiency and on the advancement of strategies for optimizing costs and quality
Modern technological devices demand high precision components and due to increasing miniaturization of these components, the industries are faced to new challenges in the manufacturing processes. Micro-machining has several advantages among these new manufacturing processes, due to its capability of producing complex, high-precision geometries with micro-features in a wide range of materials. However, it has different phenomena compared to conventional machining. In order to increase their application in industries, micro-machining processes must fit in productivity and quality standards, thus needing further research to comply with these requirements.
In this context, a current study aims to develop a tool wear predictive model in micro milling. Different methods to monitor the tool wear, such as monitoring the tool effective diameter, the cutting edge radius, and the flank wear will be combined to evaluate the tool condition and to implement it in a machine learning model to predict the tool wear. This research also aims to relate the tool wear to workpiece roughness and the tool wear impact on cutting forces and burr formation.
The described study is being carried out as an exchange of the masters student, Cinthia S. Manso, of the Brazilian partner, UFABC, at the IWF TU Berlin in Germany.
The project ForCover aims to develop an inexpensive and easy-to- exchange sheet metal die cover to improve tool life in closed-die forging. After two years of research, the second phase of this project began in last July. In the first phase of this project, the basic mechanisms of this concept and preliminary applications were investigated. The second phase aims to find more complex applications.
Based on the achieved results from the first period, three geometries were designed and evaluated. All of them are rather complex geometries, where the die cover offers a larger mechanical stability compared to the simple geometries used in the first phase of this project. After evaluating the material flow, the forging force and the stress conditions by numerical simulations, a cross geometry was selected for the first experiment. In this case, a 1.5 mm thick sheet of 22MnB5 was chosen as die cover, which was subsequently formed by deep drawing and then hardened by quenching process. The initial temperature of the forging die was 300°C. A forging cycle includes lubrication, positioning of billet, forging, taking off forged part. Under these conditions, a die cover went through ten forging cycles in experiment and no critical failure appeared. The temperature on the surface of forging die tends to reach a stable state of 350°C to 450°C. In addition, the strategies of die cover manufacturing and fixation are investigated to achieve a good accuracy and stability. Besides deep drawing, incremental forming will be also investigated to manufacture the die covers.
In the next steps, the project will aim at improving the boundary conditions, exploring other geometries and die cover materials, reaching more forging cycles and investigating applications in multistage forming process and finishing process.
The main objective of the project is to develop a manufacturing process of automotive components aiming at energy consumption reduction by replacing the common quenching and tempering process for a continuous cooling process shortly thereafter the hot forging. The use of advanced bainitic steels likewise the HSX 130HD allows the formation of bainitic structures through continuous cooling with superior properties when compared with conventional steels used in the automotive industry. Therefore, the processing windows for this steel will be determined, detecting the ongoing phase transformations during the cooling process, improving microstructure and consequently mechanical properties and surface-related properties enhancement by developing specific surface treatments.
The project is in its initial phase with the kickoff meeting fulfilled at the annual BRAGECRIM congress, placed in Salvador, Brazil 2017. The initial part of research is the study and elaboration of the forging procedure for the thermomechanical process, comprehending the dies project, the forging of a simple billet as a first source of data to be used in the finite element analysis and mechanical and metallurgical characterization, aiming to acquire the basic information of the material behavior.
Future steps of the project are: definition of the automotive component shape, determination of the heat transfer coefficients, characterization of the material after the thermomechanical process in different cooling rates, numerical simulation of the process and residual stress analysis of the component.
Research topic of the project IDD-Metro is the non-destructive testing of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) with shearography and lock-in thermography. The researchers of the RWTH Aachen University, who focus on the examination with optical lock-in thermography, developed an evaluation algorithm to generate 3D information out of lock-in thermography data. The recent outcomes enable the examination of CFRP structures in the repair shop environment.
For the investigations at the RWTH Aachen University the researchers manufactured multidirectional CRFP samples with blind bore holes. In a first step, the optimal experimental setting parameters for the examination with thermography were determined. The blind bore hole samples with defined bore hole diameters and remaining wall thicknesses enable the analysis of the depth resolution of the thermography system. To gain knowledge about the depth resolution and the lateral heat flows the CFRP test samples were investigated with different excitation frequencies. The results illustrates that with decreasing excitation the penetration depth into the part increases. To generate 3D information of the part‘s defect, a stack of images with different excitation frequencies is evaluated. Simultaneously for calibration, the blind bore bole samples are measured on the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The deviation between calibration and thermography measurements is analysed and considered determining the actual defect‘s geometry. A software with a user-friendly interface is developed to measure defects in CFRP parts in the repair shop environment.
In upcoming investigations, the correlation of part structure and setting parameters is extended. Further, the procedure is adopted for internal defects as impact damages. The target is the illustration of internal defects in a 3D model. In addition, the researchers from the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) work on the combination of thermography and shearography and data evaluation based on the principle of sensor data fusion.
First outcomes are demonstrated on the AWK "Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017" that will be held from May 18-19th and presented on the "1st CIRP Conference on Composite Materials Parts Manufacturing", in Karlsruhe on June 8-9th 2017.
The idea of ForCover (acronym for forging covers) is inspired by exchangeable cutting tool inserts. Many years ago, cutting tool inserts strongly improved the process and material efficiency in metal cutting industry because they can be produced in large quantities and can be exchanged easily. Now, the exchangeable ForCover is proposed as a promising solution to decrease the tooling costs in closed-die forging. This concept aims to develop an inexpensive and easily exchangeable sheet metal die cover to protect the engraving during the forging stroke. By using this sheet metal die cover, the thermal shock, mechanical loads and mechanical wear can be reduced. Instead of the die surface, the die cover is subjected to the peak loads during the process and will be worn-out. After a certain degree of damage, the die cover will be replaced by a new one.
The project ForCover was first proposed in 2014. Since then, general studies on suitable material combinations, geometries, boundary conditions etc. have been performed. Accordingly, several experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of this concept. Results indicate that the ForCover is effective to reduce the die wear and increase the tool life. E.g., a numerical case study shows that by using a die cover the maximum temperature of the forging die can be reduced by 140 °C, and the temperature amplitude can be reduced by 37% from 240 °C to 150 °C. Additionally, the mechanical load decreases from 1239MPa to 1075MPa. Thus, based on a die lifetime calculation developed by IBF, an increase of 210% on the tool life of forging die can be expected. In experimental validation, challenges caused by wrinkling and thinning arise in the first experiment. By analyzing various materials, geometries and boundary conditions, the problems were identified. After optimizations, the die cover can endure 10 forging cycles without deformation. In future, the improvement of boundary conditions, the range of suitable geometries and the application of ForCover in multi-stage forging process will be investigated.
Modern technological devices demand high precision components and due to increasing miniaturization of these components, the industries are faced to new challenges in the manufacturing processes. Micro-machining has several advantages among these new manufacturing processes, due to its capability of producing complex, high-precision geometries with micro-features in a wide range of materials. However, it has different phenomena compared to conventional machining. In order to increase their application in industries, micro-machining processes must fit in productivity and quality standards, thus needing further research to comply with these requirements.
In this context, the project Micro Milling Process Optimization (Micro-O) has been initiated in the scope of BRAGECRIM (Brazilian-German Collaborative Research Initiative on Smart Connected Manufacturing ), which is a Brazilian-German research platform for exchanging and developing know-how among partners, supporting research institutes and industries in both countries in achieving higher competitiveness levels on micro machining technologies. Micro-O's main goals are to improve micro-production chain, developing knowledge regarding machining process and the setup procedure as well as part control and process simulation.
Initial results based on experiments conducted on a micro-machining center have been presented in a conference article, in which the procedures "design", "tool path generation", "process setup", "machining" and "part inspection" have been documented and analyzed with regard to their time consumption. Further journal and conference publications allowed showing the progress of the project. Up to now six study and seven work missions helped to intensify the cooperation. Especially the involvement of Brazilian and German students with up to now five completed Bachelor and Master Theses was gainful for successful project progression. Significant results generated by the project team in 2016 regarding virtual micro milling, optimum cutting parameter studies, innovative monitoring systems for workpiece condition testing and new strategies for quality determination of micro-milled are under publication progress in international journals and conferences.
Building on the results of the first project period, the second project period is designated to completing the manufacturing chain by including the micro-injection molding process in the optimization measures and deriving new approaches for conveniently defining and assessing accuracy and quality requirements of the micro-mold.
The 8th annual BRAGECRIM meeting was held from November 14-16, 2016 at BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik at the University of Bremen. The meeting brought together the Brazilian and German researchers of the joint BRAGECRIM projects as well as members of the funding bodies DFG and CAPES and interested industry participants. Starting with a get-together on November 14, the following two days featured interesting presentations of all current BRAGECRIM projects as well as the visions of the funding agencies. Particular highlights were two keynote presentations of two employees of Robert Bosch GmbH as well as Volkswagen AG regarding "Connected supply chains as a key for future production networks" and "Recent advances in big data analytics and their impact on automotive challenges". Fruitful discussions of the BRAGECRIM meeting participants took place especially at the gala dinner at the Bremer Ratskeller in the historical city center.
The aim of the research project "AdaptiveSBO" is to develop an adaptive simulation-based optimization method for the scheduling and control of dynamic manufacturing systems. In Germany, the director of the BIBA, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag, coordinates the project, while Prof. Dr.-Ing. Enzo Morosini Frazzon from the research group Production and Logistics Intelligent Systems at the Federal University of Santa Cararina (UFSC) coordinates it in Brazil. Rudolph Usinados, a Brazilian manufacturing company for mechanical components for the automotive industry, which was founded by German emigrants, also takes part in the research project AdaptiveSBO. Therefore, the kickoff meeting of the project was held at Rudolph in September 2016.
The increasing customization of products, which leads to greater variances and smaller lot sizes, requires highly flexible manufacturing systems. These systems are subject to dynamic influences and demand increasing effort for the generation of feasible production schedules and process control. The paper "Potential of a data-driven simulation-based optimization approach for an adaptive scheduling and control of dynamic manufacturing systems" presents an approach for dealing with these challenges. First, production scheduling is executed by coupling an optimization heuristic with a simulation model. Second, real-time system state data, to be provided by forthcoming cyber-physical systems, is fed back, so that the simulation model is continuously updated and the optimization heuristic can either adjust an existing schedule or generate a new one. The potential of the approach was tested by means of a use case embracing a semiconductor manufacturing facility, in which the simulation results were employed to support the selection of better dispatching rules, improving flexible manufacturing systems performance regarding the average production cycle time. The paper was presented at the premier conference regarding simulation, the Winter Simulation Conference from December 11-14, 2016 in Arlington, Virginia.
In the beginning of December 2016, German research fellow Kolja Meyer (IFW) visited the partners from the UFMG in Belo Horizonte in order to perform the rotating bending tests from WP6. The aim of these investigations was to link the overlap of manufacturing induced residual stresses and load stresses to possible relaxation of residual stresses. The residual stress measurements are still in performance. During this stay, it was also possible to attend the PhD defense of Dr. Jean Carlo Pereira, who was involved in an exchange to Germany in 2015.
From November 2016 until the end of March 2017, Brazilian master student Diogo Azevedo investigates the formation of deep rolling induced white etching layers on AISI 4140 steel. These layers occur due to thermal and mechanical influence from manufacturing processes, such as turning and grinding. There is no preliminary knowledge about the influence of deep rolling on the formation of said layers. For certain parameter sets, it was possible to generate white etching layers on AISI 4140 samples as visualized.
Hendrik Engbers, M.Sc. (University of Bremen)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag (University of Bremen)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Enzo M. Frazzon (UFSC)
Information according to § 6 of the German Telemedia Act (Telemediengestz - TMG)
BRAGECRIM/PIPC - Brazilian-German Collaborative Research Initiative on Smart Connected Manufacturing
Represented by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Freitag and M.Sc. Hendrik Engbers c/o BIBA
28359 Bremen | Germany
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